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A potential conflict of interest exists when an author, editor, publisher, reviewer or Scientific Board member has a personal or financial interest or belief that could influence his/her actions or affect objectivity.

The following are the most obvious examples of conflicts of interests:

  • financial relationships - direct (employment, stock ownership, patents) and indirect (consultancies to sponsoring organizations, paid expert testimony), e.g. an author carried out research commissioned by the reviewer;
  • personal relationships especially in academic competition or intellectual passion;
  • personal beliefs that are in direct conflict with the topic of investigation.
Both author(s), reviewers and editors take into account the consideration that when there is a conflict of interest they will take appropriate actions in order to avoid it and will inform everyone it may concern.
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